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Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping
White, S. M.1; Iwai, K.2; Phillips, N. M.3,4; Hills, R. E.5; Hirota, A.3,6; Yagoubov, P.7; Siringo, G.3,4; Shimojo, M.6; Bastian, T. S.8; Hales, A. S.3,8; Sawada, T.3,6; Asayama, S.3,6; Sugimoto, M.6; Marson, R. G.9; Kawasaki, W.6; Muller, E.6; Nakazato, T.6; Sugimoto, K.6; Brajsa, R.10; Skokic, I.11; Barta, M.11; Kim, S.12; Remijan, A. J.8; de Gregorio, I.3,4; Corder, S. A.3,8; Hudson, H. S.13; Loukitcheva, M.14,15,16; Chen, B.14; De Pontieu, B.17; Fleishmann, G. D.14; Gary, D. E.14; Kobelski, A.18; Wedemeyer, S.19; Yan, Y.20
2017-07-01
Source PublicationSOLAR PHYSICS
Volume292Issue:7
AbstractThe Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope has commenced science observations of the Sun starting in late 2016. Since the Sun is much larger than the field of view of individual ALMA dishes, the ALMA interferometer is unable to measure the background level of solar emission when observing the solar disk. The absolute temperature scale is a critical measurement for much of ALMA solar science, including the understanding of energy transfer through the solar atmosphere, the properties of prominences, and the study of shock heating in the chromosphere. In order to provide an absolute temperature scale, ALMA solar observing will take advantage of the remarkable fast-scanning capabilities of the ALMA 12 m dishes to make single-dish maps of the full Sun. This article reports on the results of an extensive commissioning effort to optimize the mapping procedure, and it describes the nature of the resulting data. Amplitude calibration is discussed in detail: a path that uses the two loads in the ALMA calibration system as well as sky measurements is described and applied to commissioning data. Inspection of a large number of single-dish datasets shows significant variation in the resulting temperatures, and based on the temperature distributions, we derive quiet-Sun values at disk center of 7300 K at lambda = 3 mm and 5900 K at lambda = 1.3 mm. These values have statistical uncertainties of about 100 K, but systematic uncertainties in the temperature scale that may be significantly larger. Example images are presented from two periods with very different levels of solar activity. At a resolution of about 25 '', the 1.3 mm wavelength images show temperatures on the disk that vary over about a 2000 K range. Active regions and plages are among the hotter features, while a large sunspot umbra shows up as a depression, and filament channels are relatively cool. Prominences above the solar limb are a common feature of the single-dish images.
SubtypeArticle
KeywordRadio Emission Chromosphere Instrumentation And Data Management Heating Chromospheric
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences
Funding OrganizationALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSFC(11433006) ; NSFC(11433006) ; AGS-1262772) ; AGS-1262772) ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSFC(11433006) ; NSFC(11433006) ; AGS-1262772) ; AGS-1262772)
DOI10.1007/s11207-017-1123-2
WOS KeywordMILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS ; SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ; RADIOMETRIC STANDARD ; 3D MODEL ; CALIBRATION ; RADIATION ; LIMB ; SUBMILLIMETER ; RANGE ; CHROMOSPHERE
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding OrganizationALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSFC(11433006) ; NSFC(11433006) ; AGS-1262772) ; AGS-1262772) ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from NRAO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from ESO ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; ALMA Development grant from NAOJ ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; Croatian Science Foundation(6212) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; European Commission FP7 project SOLARNET, which is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3)(312495) ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; FP7 Capacities Programme ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSF(AGS-1250374 ; NSFC(11433006) ; NSFC(11433006) ; AGS-1262772) ; AGS-1262772)
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000406304300006
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/8885
Collection太阳物理研究部
Affiliation1.Air Force Res Lab, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 USA
2.Natl Inst Informat & Communicat Technol, Koganei, Tokyo 1848795, Japan
3.Joint ALMA Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107, Santiago 7630355, Chile
4.European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova, Santiago 7630355, Chile
5.Cavendish Lab, Astrophys Grp, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England
6.Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
7.European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
8.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
9.Pete V Domenici Sci Operat Ctr, Natl Radio Astron Observ, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 USA
10.Univ Zagreb, Hvar Observ, Fac Geodesy, Kaciceva 26, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
11.Czech Acad Sci, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic
12.Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, Daejeon 305348, South Korea
13.Univ Glasgow, Sch Phys & Astron, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland
14.New Jersey Inst Technol, Ctr Solar Terr Res, Newark, NJ 07102 USA
15.Max Planck Inst Sonnensystemforsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany
16.St Petersburg Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
17.Lockheed Martin Solar & Astrophys Lab, Org A021S, Bldg 252,3251 Hanover St, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA
18.Univ Alabama, Ctr Space Plasma & Aeron Res, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA
19.Univ Oslo, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Postboks 1029, N-0315 Oslo, Norway
20.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, A20 Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
White, S. M.,Iwai, K.,Phillips, N. M.,et al. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping[J]. SOLAR PHYSICS,2017,292(7).
APA White, S. M..,Iwai, K..,Phillips, N. M..,Hills, R. E..,Hirota, A..,...&Yan, Y..(2017).Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping.SOLAR PHYSICS,292(7).
MLA White, S. M.,et al."Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping".SOLAR PHYSICS 292.7(2017).
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