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THE WHOLE EARTH BLAZAR TELESCOPE CAMPAIGN ON THE INTERMEDIATE BL LAC OBJECT 3C 66A IN 2007-2008
Bottcher, M.1; Fultz, K.1; Aller, H. D.2; Aller, M. F.2; Apodaca, J.3; Arkharov, A. A.4; Bach, U.5; Bachev, R.6; Berdyugin, A.7; Buemi, C.8; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.9; Charlot, P.10,11; Ciprini, S.12; Di Paola, A.13; Dolci, M.14; Efimova, N. V.4; Forne Scurrats, E.15; Frasca, A.8; Gupta, A. C.16; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.17,18; Heidt, J.19; Hiriart, D.20; Konstantinova, T. S.17; Kopatskaya, E. N.17; Lahteenmaki, A.21; Lanteri, L.22; Larionov, V. M.17,18; Le Campion, J. -F.10,11; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.7; Mihov, E. Marilli B.6; Nieppola, E.21; Nilsson, K.7; Ovcharov, J. M. Ohlert E.24; Paakkonen, P.25; Pasanen, M.7; Ragozzine, B.; Raiteri, C. M.22; Ros, J. A.26; Sadun, A.3; Sanchez, A.27; Semkov, E.; Sorcia, M.28; Strigachev, A.6; Takalo, L.7; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.8; Umana, G.8; Valcheva, A.6; Villata, M.22; Volvach, A.29; Wu, J. -H.30; Zhou, X.30
2009-03-20
发表期刊ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
卷号694期号:1页码:174-182
摘要Prompted by a high optical state in 2007 September, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope consortium organized an intensive optical, near-IR (JHK) and radio observing campaign on the intermediate BL Lac object 3C 66A throughout the fall and winter of 2007-2008. In this paper, we present data from 28 observatories in 12 countries, covering the observing season from late 2007 July through 2008 February. The source remained in a high optical state throughout the observing period and exhibited several bright flares on timescales of similar to 10 days. This included an exceptional outburst around 2007 September 15-20, reaching a peak brightness at R similar to 13.4. Our campaign revealed microvariability with flux changes up to vertical bar dR/dt vertical bar similar to 0.02 mag hr(-1). Our observations do not reveal evidence for systematic spectral variability in the overall high state covered by our campaign, in agreement with previous results. In particular, we do not find evidence for spectral hysteresis in 3C 66A for which hints were found in an earlier campaign in a somewhat lower flux state. We also did not find any evidence for spectral lags in the discrete correlation functions between different optical bands. We infer a value of the magnetic field in the emission region of B similar to 19 e(B)(2/7) tau(-6/7)(h) D(1)(13/7) G, where e(B) is the magnetic field equipartition fraction, tau(h) is the shortest observed variability timescale in units of hours, and D(1) is the Doppler factor in units of 10. From the lack of systematic spectral variability, we can derive an upper limit on the Doppler factor, D <= 28 tau(-1/8)(h) e(B)(3/16). This is in perfect agreement with superluminal motion measurements with the VLBI/VLBA of beta(app) <= 27 and argues against models with very high Lorentz factors of Gamma greater than or similar to 50, required for a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton interpretation of some high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects detected at TeV gamma-ray energies.
关键词Bl Lacertae Objects: Individual (3c 66a) Galaxies: Active Gamma Rays: Theory Radiation Mechanisms: Non-thermal
DOI10.1088/0004-637X/694/1/174
收录类别SCI
语种英语
WOS记录号WOS:000264291700017
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/8318
专题光学天文研究部
作者单位1.Ohio Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Inst Astrophys, Athens, OH 45701 USA
2.Univ Michigan, Dept Astron, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
3.Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Denver, CO 80217 USA
4.Pulkovo Observ, St Petersburg 196140, Russia
5.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Radioobserv Effelsberg, D-53902 Bad Munstereifel Effelsb, Germany
6.Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Astron, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
7.Univ Turku, Tuorla Observ, Piikkio 21500, Finland
8.Osserv Astrofis Catania, I-95125 Catania, Italy
9.Osservatorio Armenzano, Assisi, Italy
10.Univ Bordeaux, Observ Aquitain Sci Univers, Floirac, France
11.CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, UMR 5804, Floirac, France
12.Univ Perugia, Osservatorio Astron, I-06126 Perugia, Italy
13.Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy
14.Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Teramo, Italy
15.Astron Observ LAmpolla, Code MPC B29, Tarragona, Spain
16.Aryabhatta Res Inst Observat Sci ARIES, Naini Tal 263129, India
17.St Petersburg State Univ, Astron Inst, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
18.St Petersburg Branch, Isaac Newton Inst Chile, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
19.Landessternwarte Heidelberg Konigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
20.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Ensenada 22800, Baja California, Mexico
21.Helsinki Univ Technol TKK, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Kylmala 02540, Finland
22.Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
23.Astron Stiftung Trebur, Michael Adrian Observ, D-65468 Trebur, Germany
24.Sofia Univ St Kliment Ohridski, Fac Phys, Sofia 1164, Bulgaria
25.Univ Joensuu, Dept Math & Phys, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland
26.Agrupac Astron Sabadell, Sabadell 08200, Spain
27.Gualba Observ, Barcelona, Spain
28.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico
29.Crimean Astrophys Observ, UA-98409 Naunchy, Crimea, Ukraine
30.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
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Bottcher, M.,Fultz, K.,Aller, H. D.,et al. THE WHOLE EARTH BLAZAR TELESCOPE CAMPAIGN ON THE INTERMEDIATE BL LAC OBJECT 3C 66A IN 2007-2008[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2009,694(1):174-182.
APA Bottcher, M..,Fultz, K..,Aller, H. D..,Aller, M. F..,Apodaca, J..,...&Zhou, X..(2009).THE WHOLE EARTH BLAZAR TELESCOPE CAMPAIGN ON THE INTERMEDIATE BL LAC OBJECT 3C 66A IN 2007-2008.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,694(1),174-182.
MLA Bottcher, M.,et al."THE WHOLE EARTH BLAZAR TELESCOPE CAMPAIGN ON THE INTERMEDIATE BL LAC OBJECT 3C 66A IN 2007-2008".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 694.1(2009):174-182.
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