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The Global Search for Liquid Water on Mars from Orbit: Current and Future Perspectives
Orosei, Roberto1; Ding, Chunyu2; Fa, Wenzhe3; Giannopoulos, Antonios4; Herique, Alain5; Kofman, Wlodek5,6; Lauro, Sebastian E.7; Li, Chunlai8,9; Pettinelli, Elena7; Su, Yan8,9; Xing, Shuguo10; Xu, Yi11
2020-08-01
Source PublicationLIFE-BASEL
Volume10Issue:8Pages:15
AbstractDue to its significance in astrobiology, assessing the amount and state of liquid water present on Mars today has become one of the drivers of its exploration. Subglacial water was identified by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) aboard the European Space Agency spacecraft Mars Express through the analysis of echoes, coming from a depth of about 1.5 km, which were stronger than surface echoes. The cause of this anomalous characteristic is the high relative permittivity of water-bearing materials, resulting in a high reflection coefficient. A determining factor in the occurrence of such strong echoes is the low attenuation of the MARSIS radar pulse in cold water ice, the main constituent of the Martian polar caps. The present analysis clarifies that the conditions causing exceptionally strong subsurface echoes occur solely in the Martian polar caps, and that the detection of subsurface water under a predominantly rocky surface layer using radar sounding will require thorough electromagnetic modeling, complicated by the lack of knowledge of many subsurface physical parameters. Higher-frequency radar sounders such as SHARAD cannot penetrate deep enough to detect basal echoes over the thickest part of the polar caps. Alternative methods such as rover-borne Ground Penetrating Radar and time-domain electromagnetic sounding are not capable of providing global coverage. MARSIS observations over the Martian polar caps have been limited by the need to downlink data before on-board processing, but their number will increase in coming years. The Chinese mission to Mars that is to be launched in 2020, Tianwen-1, will carry a subsurface sounding radar operating at frequencies that are close to those of MARSIS, and the expected signal-to-noise ratio of subsurface detection will likely be sufficient for identifying anomalously bright subsurface reflectors. The search for subsurface water through radar sounding is thus far from being concluded.
Keywordhabitability space missions space technologies
Funding OrganizationItalian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau
DOI10.3390/life10080120
WOS KeywordPOLAR LAYERED DEPOSITS ; DIELECTRIC-CONSTANT ; MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE ; RADAR SOUNDINGS ; ICE ; SUBSURFACE ; GROUNDWATER ; SOUNDER ; GULLIES ; IONOSPHERE
Language英语
Funding ProjectItalian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF[2019-21-HH.0] ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau[0089/2018/A3]
Funding OrganizationItalian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; Italian Space Agency through contract ASI-INAF ; French Space Agency CNES ; French Space Agency CNES ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau ; Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau
WOS Research AreaLife Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics ; Microbiology
WOS SubjectBiology ; Microbiology
WOS IDWOS:000564721600001
PublisherMDPI
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/82124
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorOrosei, Roberto
Affiliation1.Ist Nazl Astrofis, Ist Radioastron, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
2.Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Atmosphere Sci, 2 Daxue Rd, Zhuhai City 519000, Peoples R China
3.Peking Univ, Sch Earth & Space Sci, Inst Remote Sensing & Geog Informat Syst, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
4.Univ Edinburgh, Sch Engn, Alexander Graham Bell Bldg,Thomas Bayes Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FG, Midlothian, Scotland
5.Univ Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNES, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble, France
6.Polskiej Akad Nauk CBK PAN, Ctr Badan Kosmicznych, Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland
7.Univ Roma Tre, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis, Via Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy
8.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Key Lab Lunar & Deep Space Explorat, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
9.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
10.Piesat Informat Technol Co Ltd, Beijing 100195, Peoples R China
11.Macau Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Lunar & Planetary Sci, Ave Wai Long, Taipa, Macau, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Orosei, Roberto,Ding, Chunyu,Fa, Wenzhe,et al. The Global Search for Liquid Water on Mars from Orbit: Current and Future Perspectives[J]. LIFE-BASEL,2020,10(8):15.
APA Orosei, Roberto.,Ding, Chunyu.,Fa, Wenzhe.,Giannopoulos, Antonios.,Herique, Alain.,...&Xu, Yi.(2020).The Global Search for Liquid Water on Mars from Orbit: Current and Future Perspectives.LIFE-BASEL,10(8),15.
MLA Orosei, Roberto,et al."The Global Search for Liquid Water on Mars from Orbit: Current and Future Perspectives".LIFE-BASEL 10.8(2020):15.
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