NAOC Open IR
The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO Excitation and Atomic Carbon in Star-forming Galaxies at z=1-3
Boogaard, Leindert A.1; Werf, Paul van der1; Weiss, Axel2; Popping, Gergoe3; Decarli, Roberto4; Walter, Fabian5,6; Aravena, Manuel7; Bouwens, Rychard1; Riechers, Dominik5,8; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge7,9; Smail, Ian10; Carilli, Chris6,11; Kaasinen, Melanie5,12; Daddi, Emanuele13; Cox, Pierre14; Diaz-Santos, Tanio7,15,16; Inami, Hanae17; Cortes, Paulo C.18,19; Wagg, Jeff20
2020-10-01
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
ISSN0004-637X
Volume902Issue:2Pages:29
AbstractWe investigate the CO excitation and interstellar medium (ISM) conditions in a cold gas mass-selected sample of 22 star-forming galaxies at z = 0.46-3.60, observed as part of the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (ASPECS). Combined with Very Large Array follow-up observations, we detect a total of 34 CO J -> J - 1 transitions with J.=.1 up to 8 (and an additional 21 upper limits, up to J = 10) and 6 [C I] P-3(1) -> P-3(0) and P-3(2) -> P-3(1) transitions (and 12 upper limits). The CO(2-1) and CO(3-2)-selected galaxies, at < z > = 1.2 and 2.5, respectively, exhibit a range in excitation in their mid-J.=.4, 5 and high-J.=.7, 8 lines, on average lower than (LIR-brighter) BzK-color- and submillimeter-selected galaxies at similar redshifts. The former implies that a warm ISM component is not necessarily prevalent in gas mass-selected galaxies at < z > = 1.2. We use stacking and Large Velocity Gradient models to measure and predict the average CO ladders at z < 2 and z >= 2, finding r(21) = 0.75 +/- 0.11 and r(31) = 0.77 +/- 0.14, respectively. From the models, we infer that the galaxies at z >= 2 have intrinsically higher excitation than those at z<2. This fits a picture in which the global excitation is driven by an increase in the star formation rate surface density of galaxies with redshift. We derive a neutral atomic carbon abundance of (1.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(-5), comparable to the Milky Way and main-sequence galaxies at similar redshifts, and fairly high densities (>= 10(4) cm(-3)), consistent with the low-J CO excitation. Our results imply a decrease in the cosmic molecular gas mass density at z >= 2 compared to previous ASPECS measurements.
KeywordCO line emission Dust continuum emission Interstellar medium Galaxy formation Galaxy evolution High-redshift galaxies Millimeter astronomy
Funding OrganizationERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/abb82f
WOS KeywordMOLECULAR GAS MASSES ; PHOTODISSOCIATION REGIONS ; DISK GALAXIES ; MILKY-WAY ; EMISSION ; LUMINOSITY ; REDSHIFT ; EVOLUTION ; DUST ; RESERVOIRS
Language英语
Funding ProjectERC[740246] ; National Science Foundation[AST-1614213] ; National Science Foundation[AST-1910107] ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC[ST/T000244/1] ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI[JP19K23462]
Funding OrganizationERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI ; ERC ; ERC ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers ; STFC ; STFC ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University (IMPRS-HD) ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; JSPS KAKENHI ; JSPS KAKENHI
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000579646700001
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/82007
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorBoogaard, Leindert A.
Affiliation1.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
2.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
3.European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
4.INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
5.Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6.Pete V Domenici Array Sci Ctr, Natl Radio Astron Observ, POB O, Socorro, NM 87801 USA
7.Univ Diego Portales, Nucleo Astron, Fac Ingn & Ciencias, Ave Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago, Chile
8.Cornell Univ, 220 Space Sci Bldg, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
9.Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Fac Fis, Ave Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile
10.Univ Durham, Dept Phys, Ctr Extragalact Astron, South Rd, Durham DH1 3LE, England
11.Cavendish Lab, Battcock Ctr Expt Astrophys, Cambridge CB3 0HE, England
12.Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Albert Ueberle Str 2, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
13.Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM, CEA, DSM,CNRS,Irfu,Serv Astrophys,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
14.Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-7014 Paris, France
15.Chinese Acad Sci, Chinese Acad Sci South Amer Ctr Astron CASSACA, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
16.Fdn Res & Technol Hellas FORTH, Inst Astrophys, GR-70013 Iraklion, Greece
17.Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan
18.Joint ALMA Observ ESO, Ave Alonso de Cordova 3104, Santiago, Chile
19.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
20.SKA Org, Macclesfield SK11 9DL, Cheshire, England
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Boogaard, Leindert A.,Werf, Paul van der,Weiss, Axel,et al. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO Excitation and Atomic Carbon in Star-forming Galaxies at z=1-3[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2020,902(2):29.
APA Boogaard, Leindert A..,Werf, Paul van der.,Weiss, Axel.,Popping, Gergoe.,Decarli, Roberto.,...&Wagg, Jeff.(2020).The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO Excitation and Atomic Carbon in Star-forming Galaxies at z=1-3.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,902(2),29.
MLA Boogaard, Leindert A.,et al."The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO Excitation and Atomic Carbon in Star-forming Galaxies at z=1-3".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 902.2(2020):29.
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