NAOC Open IR
Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole
Psaltis, Dimitrios1,2; Medeiros, Lia3; Christian, Pierre1,2; Ozel, Feryal1,2; Akiyama, Kazunori4,7; Alberdi, Antxon8; Alef, Walter9; Asada, Keiichi10; Azulay, Rebecca9,11,12; Ball, David1,2; Balokovic, Mislav7,13; Barrett, John5; Bintley, Dan14; Blackburn, Lindy7,13; Boland, Wilfred15; Bower, Geoffrey C.16; Bremer, Michael17; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.18; Brissenden, Roger7,13; Britzen, Silke9; Broguiere, Dominique17; Bronzwaer, Thomas18; Byun, Young19,20; Carlstrom, John E.21,24; Chael, Andrew25; Chan, Chi-kwan1,2,26; Chatterjee, Shami27; Chatterjee, Koushik28; Chen, Ming-Tang16; Chen, Yongjun29,30; Cho, Ilje19,20; Conway, John E.31; Cordes, James M.27; Crew, Geoffrey B.5; Cui, Yuzhu32,33; Davelaar, Jordy18; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia34,36; Deane, Roger37,38; Dempsey, Jessica14; Desvignes, Gregory39; Dexter, Jason40,41; Eatough, Ralph P.9; Falcke, Heino18; Fish, Vincent L.5; Fomalont, Ed4; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel18; Friberg, Per14; Fromm, Christian M.35; Gammie, Charles F.42,43; Garcia, Roberto17; Gentaz, Olivier17; Goddi, Ciriaco18,44; Gomez, Jose L.8; Gu, Minfeng29,45; Gurwell, Mark13; Hada, Kazuhiro32,33; Hesper, Ronald46; Ho, Luis C.47,48; Ho, Paul10; Honma, Mareki32,33,49; Huang, Chih-Wei L.10; Huang, Lei29,45; Hughes, David H.50; Inoue, Makoto10; Issaoun, Sara18; James, David J.7,13; Jannuzi, Buell T.1,2; Janssen, Michael18; Jiang, Wu29; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra51; Johnson, Michael D.7,13; Jorstad, Svetlana52,53; Jung, Taehyun19,20; Karami, Mansour54,55; Karuppusamy, Ramesh9; Kawashima, Tomohisa6; Keating, Garrett K.13; Kettenis, Mark56; Kim, Jae-Young9; Kim, Junhan1,2,57; Kim, Jongsoo19; Kino, Motoki6,58; Koay, Jun Yi10; Koch, Patrick M.10; Koyama, Shoko10; Kramer, Michael9; Kramer, Carsten17; Krichbaum, Thomas P.9; Kuo, Cheng-Yu59; Lauer, Tod R.60; Lee, Sang-Sung19; Li, Yan-Rong61; Li, Zhiyuan62,63; Lindqvist, Michael31; Lico, Rocco8,9; Liu, Jun9; Liu, Kuo9; Liuzzo, Elisabetta64; Lo, Wen-Ping10,65; Lobanov, Andrei P.9; Lonsdale, Colin5; Lu, Ru-Sen9,29,30; Mao, Jirong66,68; Markoff, Sera18,28; Marrone, Daniel P.1,2; Marscher, Alan P.52; Marti-Vidal, Ivan11,12; Matsushita, Satoki10; Mizuno, Yosuke35,69,70; Mizuno, Izumi14; Moran, James M.7,13; Moriyama, Kotaro5,32; Moscibrodzka, Monika18; Muller, Cornelia9,18; Musoke, Gibwa18,28; Mejias, Alejandro Mus11,12; Nagai, Hiroshi6,33; Nagar, Neil M.71; Narayan, Ramesh7,13; Narayanan, Gopal72; Natarajan, Iniyan38; Neri, Roberto17; Noutsos, Aristeidis9; Okino, Hiroki32,49; Olivares, Hector35; Oyama, Tomoaki32; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.7,13; Park, Jongho10; Patel, Nimesh13; Pen, Ue-Li54,73,75; Pietu, Vincent17; Plambeck, Richard76; PopStefanija, Aleksandar72; Ben Prather42; Preciado-Lopez, Jorge A.54; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh71; Rao, Ramprasad16; Rawlings, Mark G.14; Raymond, Alexander W.7,13; Ripperda, Bart77,78; Roelofs, Freek18; Rogers, Alan5; Ros, Eduardo9; Rose, Mel1,2; Roshanineshat, Arash1,2; Rottmann, Helge9; Roy, Alan L.9; Ruszczyk, Chet5; Ryan, Benjamin R.79,80; Rygl, Kazi L. J.64; Sanchez, Salvador81; Sanchez-Arguelles, David50,82; Sasada, Mahito32,83; Savolainen, Tuomas9,84,85; Schloerb, F. Peter72; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich17; Shao, Lijing9,48; Shen, Zhiqiang29,30; Small, Des56; Sohn, Bong Won19,20,86; SooHoo, Jason5; Tazaki, Fumie32; Tilanus, Remo P. J.1,2,18,44,87; Titus, Michael5; Torne, Pablo9,81; Trent, Tyler1,2; Traianou, Efthalia9; Trippe, Sascha90; van Bemmel, Ilse91; van Langevelde, Huib Jan7,13; van Rossum, Daniel R.9; Wagner, Jan9; Wardle, John90; Ward-Thompson, Derek91; Weintroub, Jonathan7,13; Wex, Norbert9; Wharton, Robert9; Wielgus, Maciek7,13; Wong, George N.42,79; Wu, Qingwen92; Yoon, Doosoo28; Young, Andre18; Young, Ken13; Younsi, Ziri35,93; Yuan, Feng29,45,94; Yuan, Ye-Fei95; Zhao, Shan-Shan18,62
2020-10-01
Source PublicationPHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS
ISSN0031-9007
Volume125Issue:14Pages:9
AbstractThe 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources.
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China
DOI10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104
Language英语
Funding ProjectAcademy of Finland[274477] ; Academy of Finland[284495] ; Academy of Finland[312496] ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action[731016] ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation[60477] ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile)[PIA ACT172033] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects)[1171506] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects)[3190878] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL)[AFB-170002] ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt)[31140007] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[104497] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[275201] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[279006] ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico)[281692] ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM)[IN112417] ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes"[610058] ; Generalitat Valenciana[APOSTD/2018/177] ; GenT Program[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-3561] ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation[GBMF-5278] ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[JP17J08829] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJ-SSW-SLH057] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[QYZDJSSW-SYS008] ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)[ZDBS-LY-SLH011] ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18KK0090] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K13594] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18K03656] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[JP18H03721] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18K03709] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[18H01245] ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI[25120007] ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[105-2112-M-001-025-MY3] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2112-M-001-011] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[106-2119-M-001-027] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-017] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-001-020] ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan[107-2119-M-110-005] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute[80NSSC17K0649] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute[HST-HF2-51431.001-A] ; NASA[NAS5-26555] ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400704] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2016YFA0400702] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0096454] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0352953] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0521233] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0705062] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST0905844] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-0922984] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1126433] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1140030] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[DGE-1144085] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207704] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207730] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[AST-1207752] ; National Science Foundation (NSF)[MRI-1228509] ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1A2A1033752] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[2015-R1D1A1A01056807] ; National Research Foundation of Korea[NRF-2015H1D3A1066561] ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award[639.043.513] ; Spinoza Prize[SPI 78-409] ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[AYA2016-80889-P] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[PID2019-108995GB-C21] ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia[SEV-2017-0709] ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia[P18-FR-1769] ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas[2019AEP112] ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory[89233218CNA000001] ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA[CUP C52I13000140001] ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[730562 RadioNet] ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra[TM6-17006X] ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project[CIDEGENT/2018/021] ; NSF[ACI-1548562] ; NSF[DBI-0735191] ; NSF[DBI-1265383] ; NSF[DBI-1743442] ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402700] ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant[PHY1125897] ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11573051] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11633006] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11650110427] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[10625314] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11725312] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11933007] ; [OPP-1248097] ; [AST-1310896] ; [AST-1312651] ; [AST-1337663] ; [AST-1440254] ; [AST-1555365] ; [AST-1715061] ; [AST-1615796] ; [AST-1716327] ; [OISE-1743747] ; [AST-1816420] ; [PLR-1248097]
Funding OrganizationAcademy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Academy of Finland ; Academy of Finland ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Advanced European Network of E-infrastructures for Astronomy with the SKA (AENEAS) project - European Commission Framework Programme Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation action ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University from the John Templeton Foundation ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via Fondecyt Projects) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via BASAL) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT, Chile, via ALMA-conicyt) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, Mexico) ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Delaney Family via the Delaney Family John A. Wheeler Chair at Perimeter Institute ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; Direccion General de Asuntos del Personal Academico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA-UNAM) ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; European Research Council Synergy Grant "BlackHoleCam: Imaging the Event Horizon of Black Holes" ; Generalitat Valenciana ; Generalitat Valenciana ; GenT Program ; GenT Program ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sezione di Napoli, iniziative specifiche TEONGRAV ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Bonn ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Cologne ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Jansky Fellowship program of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho:MEXT) Scholarship ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Leverhulme Trust Early Career Research Fellowship ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; Max Planck Partner Group of the MPG ; CAS ; CAS ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) Funds ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; National Science Foundation (NSF) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Youth Thousand Talents Program of China ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; National Research Foundation of Korea ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) VICI award ; Spinoza Prize ; Spinoza Prize ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; New Scientific Frontiers with Precision Radio Interferometry Fellowship - South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO) ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics - Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Science ; Russian Science Foundation ; Russian Science Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia ; Toray Science Foundation ; Toray Science Foundation ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejeria de Economia, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad of the Junta de Andalucia ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Los Alamos National Laboratory ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; Italian Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca through the grant Progetti Premiali 2012-iALMA ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; ALMA North America Development Fund ; Academia Sinica ; Academia Sinica ; Chandra ; Chandra ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; GenT Program (Generalitat Valenciana) Project ; NSF ; NSF ; Smithsonian Institution ; Smithsonian Institution ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; Science and Technologies Facility Council (UK) ; State of Arizona ; State of Arizona ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; NSF Physics Frontier Center Grant ; Kavli Foundation ; Kavli Foundation ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China
WOS Research AreaPhysics
WOS SubjectPhysics, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000574779300002
PublisherAMER PHYSICAL SOC
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/81650
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorPsaltis, Dimitrios
Affiliation1.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
2.Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
3.Inst Adv Study, Sch Nat Sci, 1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA
4.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemt Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
5.MIT, Haystack Observ, 99 Millstone Rd, Westford, MA 01886 USA
6.Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
7.Harvard Univ, Black Hole Initiat, 20 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
8.CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain
9.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
10.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F Astron Math Bldg,AS NTU 1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
11.Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, C Dr Moliner 50, E-46100 Valencia, Spain
12.Univ Valencia, Observ Astron & Astrofis, C Catedrat Jose Beltran 2, E-46980 Valencia, Spain
13.Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
14.East Asian Observ, 660 North Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA
15.Nederlandse Onderzoeksch Astron NOVA, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
16.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 645 North Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA
17.Inst Radioastron Millimetrique, 300 Rue Piscine, F-38406 St Martin Dheres, France
18.Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Math Astrophys & Particle Phys IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands
19.Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, Daedeok Daero 776, Daejeon 34055, South Korea
20.Univ Sci & Technol, Gajeong Ro 217, Daejeon 34113, South Korea
21.Univ Chicago, Kavli Inst Cosmol Phys, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
22.Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
23.Univ Chicago, Dept Phys, 5720 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
24.Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 South Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
25.Princeton Univ, Princeton Ctr Theoret Sci, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
26.Univ Arizona, Data Sci Inst, 1230 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
27.Cornell Univ, Cornell Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA
28.Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands
29.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
30.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Peoples R China
31.Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Onsala Space Observ, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden
32.Natl Astron Observ Japan, Mizusawa VLBI Observ, 2-12 Hoshigaoka, Oshu, Iwate 0230861, Japan
33.Grad Univ Adv Studies SOKENDAI, Dept Astron Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
34.Univ Napoli Federico II, Compl Univ Monte S Angelo, Dipartimento Fis E Pancini, Edificio G,Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples, Italy
35.Goethe Univ Frankfurt, Inst Theoret Phys, Max Von Laue Str 1, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany
36.Univ Monte SantAngelo, Sez Napoli, Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Edificio G,Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples, Italy
37.Univ Pretoria, Dept Phys, Lynnwood Rd, ZA-0083 Pretoria, South Africa
38.Rhodes Univ, Ctr Radio Astron Tech & Technol, Dept Phys & Elect, ZA-6140 Grahamstown, South Africa
39.Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France
40.Univ Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
41.Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
42.Univ Illinois, Dept Phys, 1110 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
43.Univ Illinois, Dept Astron, 1002 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
44.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ Allegro, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
45.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Res Galaxies & Cosmol, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
46.Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, NOVA Sub Mm Instrumentat Grp, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands
47.Peking Univ, Sch Phys, Dept Astron, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
48.Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
49.Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Astron, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan
50.Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr, Apartado Postal 51 & 216, Puebla 72000, Puebla, Mexico
51.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
52.Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA
53.St Petersburg Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
54.Perimeter Inst Theoret Phys, 31 Caroline St North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5, Canada
55.Univ Waterloo, Dept Phys & Astron, 200 Univ Ave West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
56.Joint Inst VLBI ERIC JIVE, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, NL-7991 PD Dwingeloo, Netherlands
57.CALTECH, 1200 East Calif Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
58.Kogakuin Univ Technol & Engn, Acad Support Ctr, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 1920015, Japan
59.Natl Sun Yat Sen Univ, Phys Dept, 70 Lien Hai Rd, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
60.NSFs Natl Opt Infrared Astron Res Lab, 950 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA
61.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys, Key Lab Particle Astrophys, 19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing, Peoples R China
62.Nanjing Univ, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
63.Nanjing Univ, Key Lab Modern Astron & Astrophys, Nanjing 210023, Peoples R China
64.INAF Ist Radioastron, Italian Alma Reg Ctr, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
65.Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Phys, 1,Sect 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
66.Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Observ, Kunming 650011, Yunnan, Peoples R China
67.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Astron Megasci, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
68.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Struct & Evolut Celestial Objects, Kunming 650011, Yunnan, Peoples R China
69.Univ Amsterdam, Gravitat Astroparticle Phys Amsterdam GRAPPA Inst, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands
70.Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Tsung Dao Lee Inst, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China
71.Univ Concepcion, Astron Dept, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile
72.Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron, Amherst, MA 01003 USA
73.Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8, Canada
74.Univ Toronto, Dunlap Inst Astron & Astrophys, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
75.Canadian Inst Adv Res, 180 Dundas St West, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8, Canada
76.Univ Calif Berkeley, Radio Astron Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
77.Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
78.Flatiron Inst, Ctr Computat Astrophys, 162 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10010 USA
79.Los Alamos Natl Lab, CCS 2,POB 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA
80.Los Alamos Natl Lab, Ctr Theoret Astrophys, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA
81.IRAM, Inst Radioastronom Milimetr, Ave Divina Pastora 7,Local 20, E-18012 Granada, Spain
82.IRAM, Consejo Nacl Ciencia & Tecnol, Ave Insurgentes Sur 1582, Ciudad De Mexico 03940, Spain
83.Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan
84.Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, PL 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
85.Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metsahovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmala, Finland
86.Yonsei Univ, Dept Astron, Yonsei Ro 50, Seoul 03722, South Korea
87.Netherlands Org Sci Res NWO, Postbus 93138, NL-2509 AC The Hague, Netherlands
88.Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Seoul 08826, South Korea
89.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Postbus 2300, NL-9513 RA Leiden, Netherlands
90.Brandeis Univ, Phys Dept, 415 South St, Waltham, MA 02453 USA
91.Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England
92.Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Phys, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China
93.Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England
94.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, 19A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
95.Univ Sci & Technol China, Astron Dept, Hefei 230026, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Psaltis, Dimitrios,Medeiros, Lia,Christian, Pierre,et al. Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole[J]. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS,2020,125(14):9.
APA Psaltis, Dimitrios.,Medeiros, Lia.,Christian, Pierre.,Ozel, Feryal.,Akiyama, Kazunori.,...&Zhao, Shan-Shan.(2020).Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole.PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS,125(14),9.
MLA Psaltis, Dimitrios,et al."Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole".PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 125.14(2020):9.
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