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The ALMA Survey of 70 mu m Dark High-mass Clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). II. Molecular Outflows in the Extreme Early Stages of Protocluster Formation
Li, Shanghuo1,2,3,4; Sanhueza, Patricio5,6; Zhang, Qizhou2; Nakamura, Fumitaka5,6; Lu, Xing5; Wang, Junzhi1; Liu, Tie1; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi5; Jackson, James M.7; Silva, Andrea5; Guzman, Andres E.5; Sakai, Takeshi8; Izumi, Natsuko5,9; Tafoya, Daniel10; Li, Fei1,3; Contreras, Yanett11; Morii, Kaho5,12; Kim, Kee-Tae4,13
2020-11-01
Source PublicationASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL
ISSN0004-637X
Volume903Issue:2Pages:17
AbstractWe present a study of outflows at extremely early stages of high-mass star formation obtained from the ALMA Survey of 70 mu m dark High-mass clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). Twelve massive 3.6-70 mu m dark prestellar clump candidates were observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Band 6. Forty-three outflows are identified toward 41 out of 301 dense cores using the CO and SiO emission lines, yielding a detection rate of 14%. We discover six episodic molecular outflows associated with low- to high-mass cores, indicating that episodic outflows (and therefore episodic accretion) begin at extremely early stages of protostellar evolution for a range of core masses. The time span between consecutive ejection events is much smaller than those found in more evolved stages, which indicates that the ejection episodicity timescale is likely not constant over time. The estimated outflow dynamical timescale appears to increase with core masses, which likely indicates that more massive cores have longer accretion timescales than less massive cores. The lower accretion rates in these 70 mu m dark objects compared to the more evolved protostars indicate that the accretion rates increase with time. The total outflow energy rate is smaller than the turbulent energy dissipation rate, which suggests that outflow-induced turbulence cannot sustain the internal clump turbulence at the current epoch. We often detect thermal SiO emission within these 70 mu m dark clumps that is unrelated to CO outflows. This SiO emission could be produced by collisions, intersection flows, undetected protostars, or other motions.
KeywordInfrared dark clouds Star formation Massive stars Protostars Interstellar medium Stellar winds Interstellar line emission Stellar jets Protoclusters
Funding OrganizationNational Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
DOI10.3847/1538-4357/abb81f
WOS KeywordSTAR-FORMATION ; CO OUTFLOWS ; PROTOSTELLAR CANDIDATES ; SIO EMISSION ; ACCRETION ; EVOLUTION ; DRIVEN ; GAS ; ENERGETICS ; TURBULENCE
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Key R&D Program of China[2017YFA0402604] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[U1731237] ; Natural Science Foundation of China[11590783] ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)[18H01259]
Funding OrganizationNational Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; National Key R&D Program of China ; National Key R&D Program of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Natural Science Foundation of China ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Chinese Scholarship Council ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) ; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000588235600001
PublisherIOP PUBLISHING LTD
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/80802
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorLi, Shanghuo
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
2.Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
3.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
4.Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst, 776 Daedeokdae Ro, Daejeon 34055, South Korea
5.Natl Inst Nat Sci, Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
6.SOKENDAI Grad Univ Adv Studies, Dept Astron Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
7.NASA, SOFIA Sci Ctr, USRA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94045 USA
8.Univ Electrocommun, Grad Sch Informat & Engn, Chofu, Tokyo 1828585, Japan
9.Ibaraki Univ, Coll Sci, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 3108512, Japan
10.Chalmers Univ Technol, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Space Earth & Environm, SE-43992 Onsala, Sweden
11.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
12.Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Astron, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1810015, Japan
13.Univ Sci & Technol, 217 Gajeong Ro, Daejeon 34113, South Korea
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Li, Shanghuo,Sanhueza, Patricio,Zhang, Qizhou,et al. The ALMA Survey of 70 mu m Dark High-mass Clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). II. Molecular Outflows in the Extreme Early Stages of Protocluster Formation[J]. ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,2020,903(2):17.
APA Li, Shanghuo.,Sanhueza, Patricio.,Zhang, Qizhou.,Nakamura, Fumitaka.,Lu, Xing.,...&Kim, Kee-Tae.(2020).The ALMA Survey of 70 mu m Dark High-mass Clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). II. Molecular Outflows in the Extreme Early Stages of Protocluster Formation.ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL,903(2),17.
MLA Li, Shanghuo,et al."The ALMA Survey of 70 mu m Dark High-mass Clumps in Early Stages (ASHES). II. Molecular Outflows in the Extreme Early Stages of Protocluster Formation".ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 903.2(2020):17.
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