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Hyperfine group ratio: a recipe for deriving kinetic temperature from the ammonia inversion lines
Wang, Shen1,2; Ren, Zhiyuan1; Li, Di1,2,3; Kauffmann, Jens4; Zhang, Qizhou5; Shi, Hui1,2
2020-12-01
Source PublicationMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
ISSN0035-8711
Volume499Issue:3Pages:4432-4444
AbstractAlthough ammonia is a widely used interstellar thermometer, the estimation of its rotational and kinetic temperatures can be affected by the blended hyperfine components (HFCs). We have developed a new recipe, referred to as the hyperfine group ratio (HFGR), which utilizes only direct observables, namely the intensity ratios between the grouped HFCs. As tested on the model spectra, the empirical formulae in the HFGR can derive the rotational temperature (T-rot) from the HFC group ratios in an unambiguous manner. We compared the HFGR with two other classical methods, intensity ratio and hyperfine fitting, based on both simulated spectra and real data. The HFGR has three major improvements. First, it does not require modelling the HFC or fitting the line profiles, so it is more robust against the effect of HFC blending. Second, the simulation-enabled empirical formulae are much faster than fitting the spectra over the parameter space, so both computer time and human time can be saved. Third, the statistical uncertainty of the temperature Delta T-rot as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is a natural product of the HFGR recipe. The internal error of the HFGR is T-rot <= 0.5 K over a broad parameter space of rotational temperature (10-60 K), linewidth (0.3-4 km s(-1)) and optical depth (0-5). When there is spectral noise, the HFGR can also maintain a reasonable uncertainty level at Delta T-rot <= 1.0 K when S/N > 4.
Keywordstars: formation ISM: clouds ISM: individual objects: Orion A North ISM: molecules ISM: structure
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences
DOI10.1093/mnras/staa3059
WOS KeywordDENSE CORES ; INTERSTELLAR AMMONIA ; NH3 OBSERVATIONS
Language英语
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[11988101] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[11725313] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[11403041] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[11373038] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[11373045] ; CAS International Partnership Program[114A11KYSB20160008] ; China Scholarship Council[201704910686] ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; CAS International Partnership Program ; CAS International Partnership Program ; China Scholarship Council ; China Scholarship Council ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Young Researcher Grant of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000593116100092
PublisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/80094
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorWang, Shen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Di
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, A20 Datun Rd, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
3.Univ KwaZulu Natal, NAOC UKZN Computat Astrophys Ctr, ZA-4000 Durban, South Africa
4.MIT, Haystack Observ, 99 Millstone Rd, Westford, MA 01886 USA
5.Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wang, Shen,Ren, Zhiyuan,Li, Di,et al. Hyperfine group ratio: a recipe for deriving kinetic temperature from the ammonia inversion lines[J]. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,2020,499(3):4432-4444.
APA Wang, Shen,Ren, Zhiyuan,Li, Di,Kauffmann, Jens,Zhang, Qizhou,&Shi, Hui.(2020).Hyperfine group ratio: a recipe for deriving kinetic temperature from the ammonia inversion lines.MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,499(3),4432-4444.
MLA Wang, Shen,et al."Hyperfine group ratio: a recipe for deriving kinetic temperature from the ammonia inversion lines".MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 499.3(2020):4432-4444.
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