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Revisiting the HD 21749 planetary system with stellar activity modelling
Gan, Tianjun1,2; Wang, Sharon Xuesong1,2,3; Teske, Johanna K.3; Mao, Shude1,2,4; Howard, Ward S.5; Law, Nicholas M.5; Batalha, Natasha E.6; Vanderburg, Andrew7; Dragomir, Diana8; Huang, Chelsea X.9,10; Feng, Fabo11; Butler, R. Paul11; Crane, Jeffrey D.3; Shectman, Stephen A.3; Beletsky, Yuri3; Shporer, Avi9,10; Montet, Benjamin T.12; Burt, Jennifer A.13; Feinstein, Adina D.14; Flowers, Erin15; Nandakumar, Sangeetha16; Barbieri, Mauro16; Corbett, Hank5; Ratzloff, Jeffrey K.5; Galliher, Nathan5; Chavez, Ramses Gonzalez5; Vasquez, Alan5; Glazier, Amy5; Haislip, Joshua5
2021-03-01
Source PublicationMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
ISSN0035-8711
Volume501Issue:4Pages:6042-6061
AbstractHD 21749 is a bright (V = 8.1 mag) K dwarf at 16 pc known to host an inner terrestrial planet HD 21749c as well as an outer sub-Neptune HD 21749b, both delivered by Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Follow-up spectroscopic observations measured the mass of HD 21749b to be 22.7 +/- 2.2 M-circle plus with a density of 7.0(-1.3)(+1.6) g cm(-3), making it one of the densest sub-Neptunes. However, the mass measurement was suspected to be influenced by stellar rotation. Here, we present new high-cadence PFS RV data to disentangle the stellar activity signal from the planetary signal. We find that HD 21749 has a similar rotational time-scale as the planet's orbital period, and the amplitude of the planetary orbital RV signal is estimated to be similar to that of the stellar activity signal. We perform Gaussian process regression on the photometry and RVs from HARPS and PFS to model the stellar activity signal. Our new models reveal that HD 21749b has a radius of 2.86 +/- 0.20 R-circle plus, an orbital period of 35.6133 +/- 0.0005 d with a mass of M-b = 20.0 +/- 2.7 M-circle plus and a density of 4.8(-1.4)(+2.0) g cm(-3) on an eccentric orbit with e = 0.16 +/- 0.06, which is consistent with the most recent values published for this system. HD 21749c has an orbital period of 7.7902 +/- 0.0006 d, a radius of 1.13 +/- 0.10 R-circle plus, and a 3 sigma mass upper limit of 3.5 M-circle plus. Our Monte Carlo simulations confirm that without properly taking stellar activity signals into account, the mass measurement of HD 21749b is likely to arrive at a significantly underestimated error bar.
Keywordstars: individual: HD 21749 planetary systems
Funding OrganizationNASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration
DOI10.1093/mnras/staa3886
Language英语
Funding ProjectNASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China[11390372] ; National Science Foundation of China[11761131004] ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant[80NSSC19K1727] ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant[18-2XRP18 2-0136] ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute[HSTHF2-51399.001] ; NASA[NAS5-26555] ; NASA[18-XRP18 20048] ; NASA[NNH18ZDA001N-XRP] ; NASA[80NSSC19K0290] ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship[DGE-1746045] ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship[DGE-1144081] ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant[1555175] ; Research Corporation Scialog[23782] ; Research Corporation Scialog[23822] ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant[AST-1407589] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration[80NM0018D0004]
Funding OrganizationNASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; NASA's Science Mission directorate ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; TESS Guest Investigator Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA Exoplanet Research Program grant ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA through Hubble Fellowship - Space Telescope Science Institute ; NASA ; NASA ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; National Science Foundation CAREER grant ; Research Corporation Scialog ; Research Corporation Scialog ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Science Foundation/ATI grant ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000637320000093
PublisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/78391
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorGan, Tianjun; Wang, Sharon Xuesong
Affiliation1.Tsinghua Univ, Dept Astron, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China
2.Tsinghua Univ, Tsinghua Ctr Astrophys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China
3.Observ Carnegie Inst Sci, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, 20A Datun Rd, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
5.Univ N Carolina, Dept Phys & Astron, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA
6.NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA
7.Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA
8.Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, 1919 Lomas Blvd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA
9.MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
10.MIT, Kavli Inst Astrophys & Space Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
11.Carnegie Inst Sci, Earth & Planets Lab, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA
12.Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
13.CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA
14.Univ Chicago, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
15.Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA
16.Univ Atacama, INCT, Calle Copayapu 485, Copiapo 1532297, Atacama, Chile
Recommended Citation
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Gan, Tianjun,Wang, Sharon Xuesong,Teske, Johanna K.,et al. Revisiting the HD 21749 planetary system with stellar activity modelling[J]. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,2021,501(4):6042-6061.
APA Gan, Tianjun.,Wang, Sharon Xuesong.,Teske, Johanna K..,Mao, Shude.,Howard, Ward S..,...&Haislip, Joshua.(2021).Revisiting the HD 21749 planetary system with stellar activity modelling.MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,501(4),6042-6061.
MLA Gan, Tianjun,et al."Revisiting the HD 21749 planetary system with stellar activity modelling".MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 501.4(2021):6042-6061.
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