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Clouds, filaments, and protostars: The Herschel Hi-GAL Milky Way
Molinari, S.1; Swinyard, B.2; Bally, J.3; Barlow, M.4,5,6; Bernard, J. -P.; Martin, P.7; Moore, T.8; Noriega-Crespo, A.9; Plume, R.10; Testi, L.11,12; Zavagno, A.13; Abergel, A.14; Ali, B.15; Anderson, L.13; Andre, P.16; Baluteau, J. -P.13; Battersby, C.3; Beltran, M. T.11; Benedettini, M.1; Billot, N.15; Blommaert, J.17; Bontemps, S.16,18; Boulanger, F.14; Brand, J.19; Brunt, C.; Burton, M.21; Calzoletti, L.51; Carey, S.9; Caselli, P.23; Cesaroni, R.11; Cernicharo, J.24; Chakrabarti, S.53; Chrysostomou, A.26; Cohen, M.27; Compiegne, M.28; de Bernardis, P.29; de Gasperis, G.30; di Giorgio, A. M.1; Elia, D.1; Faustini, F.51; Flagey, N.9; Fukui, Y.32; Fuller, G. A.33; Ganga, K.34; Garcia-Lario, P.35; Glenn, J.3; Goldsmith, P. F.36; Griffin, M.37; Hoare, M.23; Huang, M.38; Ikhenaode, D.50; Joblin, C.; Joncas, G.39; Juvela, M.40; Kirk, J. M.37; Lagache, G.14; Li, J. Z.38; Lim, T. L.2; Lord, S. D.15; Marengo, M.25; Marshall, D. J.; Masi, S.29; Massi, F.11; Matsuura, M.4,5,6,55; Minier, V.16; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.14; Montier, L. A.; Morgan, L.8; Motte, F.16; Mottram, J. C.; Mueller, T. G.42; Natoli, P.30; Neves, J.41; Olmi, L.11; Paladini, R.9; Paradis, D.9; Parsons, H.41; Peretto, N.16,33; Pestalozzi, M.1; Pezzuto, S.1; Piacentini, F.29; Piazzo, L.50; Polychroni, D.1; Pomares, M.13; Popescu, C. C.43; Reach, W. T.9; Ristorcelli, I.; Robitaille, J. -F.39; Robitaille, T.25; Rodon, J. A.13; Roy, A.7; Royer, P.17; Russeil, D.13; Saraceno, P.1; Sauvage, M.16; Schilke, P.31; Schisano, E.1,54; Schneider, N.16; Schuller, F.44; Schulz, B.15; Sibthorpe, B.37; Smith, H. A.25; Smith, M. D.45; Spinoglio, L.1; Stamatellos, D.37; Strafella, F.22; Stringfellow, G. S.3; Sturm, E.42; Taylor, R.46; Thompson, M. A.41; Traficante, A.30; Tuffs, R. J.47; Umana, G.48; Valenziano, L.49; Vavrek, R.35; Veneziani, M.29; Viti, S.4,5,6; Waelkens, C.17; Ward-Thompson, D.37; White, G.2,52; Wilcock, L. A.37; Wyrowski, F.44; Yorke, H. W.36; Zhang, Q.25
摘要We present the first results from the science demonstration phase for the Hi-GAL survey, the Herschel key program that will map the inner Galactic plane of the Milky Way in 5 bands. We outline our data reduction strategy and present some science highlights on the two observed 2 degrees x 2 degrees tiles approximately centered at l = 30 degrees and l = 59 degrees. The two regions are extremely rich in intense and highly structured extended emission which shows a widespread organization in filaments. Source SEDs can be built for hundreds of objects in the two fields, and physical parameters can be extracted, for a good fraction of them where the distance could be estimated. The compact sources (which we will call cores' in the following) are found for the most part to be associated with the filaments, and the relationship to the local beam-averaged column density of the filament itself shows that a core seems to appear when a threshold around A(V) similar to 1 is exceeded for the regions in the l = 59 degrees field; a A(V) value between 5 and 10 is found for the l = 30 degrees field, likely due to the relatively higher distances of the sources. This outlines an exciting scenario where diffuse clouds first collapse into filaments, which later fragment to cores where the column density has reached a critical level. In spite of core L/M ratios being well in excess of a few for many sources, we find core surface densities between 0.03 and 0.5 g cm(-2). Our results are in good agreement with recent MHD numerical simulations of filaments forming from large-scale converging flows.
关键词Stars: Formation Ism: Structure Ism: Clouds Galaxy: General
作者单位1.INAF Ist Fis Spazio Interplanetario, I-00133 Rome, Italy
2.Rutherford Appleton Labs, STFC, Didcot, Oxon, England
3.Univ Colorado, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, CASA, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
4.UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, London, England
5.Univ Toulouse, UPS, CESR, Toulouse, France
6.CNRS, UMR5187, Toulouse, France
7.Univ Toronto, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Toronto, ON, Canada
8.Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5UX, Merseyside, England
9.CALTECH, Spitzer Sci Ctr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
10.Univ Calgary, Dept Phys & Astron, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
11.INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Florence, Italy
12.European So Observ, D-8046 Garching, Germany
13.Univ Aix Marseille 1, LAM, Marseille, France
14.Univ Paris 11, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Orsay, France
15.CALTECH, NASA Herschel Sci Ctr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
16.Univ Paris Diderot, CEA DSM INSU CNRS, Lab AIM, IRFU SAp,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
17.Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Louvain, Belgium
18.Univ Bordeaux, LAB, CNRS, F-33271 Floirac, France
19.INAF Ist Radioastron, Bologna, Italy
20.Univ Exeter, Sch Phys, Exeter EX4 4QL, Devon, England
21.Univ New S Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
22.Univ Salento, Dipartimento Fis, Lecce, Italy
23.Univ Leeds, Sch Phys & Astron, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England
24.CSIC, INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid, Spain
25.Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA
26.Joint Astron Ctr, Hilo, HI USA
27.UCB, Radio Astron Lab, Berkeley, CA USA
28.Univ Toronto, Canadian Inst Theoret Astrophys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada
29.Univ Rome 1, Dipartimento Fis, I-00185 Rome, Italy
30.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, I-00173 Rome, Italy
31.Univ Cologne, Inst Phys 1, D-50937 Cologne, Germany
32.Nagoya Univ, Dept Astrophys, Nagoya, Aichi 464, Japan
33.Univ Manchester, Sch Phys & Astron, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England
34.Univ Paris 07, APC, CNRS, F-75205 Paris 13, France
35.European Space Astron Ctr, Herschel Sci Ctr, Madrid 28080, Spain
36.CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA
37.Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales
38.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing, Peoples R China
39.Univ Laval, Dept Phys, Quebec City, PQ G1K 7P4, Canada
40.Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland
41.Univ Hertfordshire, Sci & Technol Res Inst, Ctr Astrophys Res, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England
42.MPE MPG, Garching, Germany
43.Univ Cent Lancashire, Jeremiah Horrocks Inst, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England
44.MPifR MPG, Bonn, Germany
45.Univ Kent, Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Canterbury, Kent, England
46.Univ Calgary, Ctr Radio Astron, Calgary, AB, Canada
47.Max Planck Inst Kernphys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
48.INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Catania, Italy
49.INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm, Bologna, Italy
50.Univ Roma 1 La Sapienza, Dipartimento Sci & Tecn Informaz & Comunicaz, Rome, Italy
51.ASI Sci Data Ctr, I-00044 Frascati, Roma, Italy
52.Open Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England
53.UCB Berkeley, Dept Astron, Berkeley, CA USA
54.Univ Naples Federico 2, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy
55.Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England
GB/T 7714
Molinari, S.,Swinyard, B.,Bally, J.,et al. Clouds, filaments, and protostars: The Herschel Hi-GAL Milky Way[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2010,518.
APA Molinari, S..,Swinyard, B..,Bally, J..,Barlow, M..,Bernard, J. -P..,...&Zhang, Q..(2010).Clouds, filaments, and protostars: The Herschel Hi-GAL Milky Way.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,518.
MLA Molinari, S.,et al."Clouds, filaments, and protostars: The Herschel Hi-GAL Milky Way".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 518(2010).
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