NAOC Open IR
ALMA-IRDC: dense gas mass distribution from cloud to core scales
Barnes, A. T.1; Henshaw, J. D.2; Fontani, F.3,4; Pineda, J. E.3; Cosentino, G.5; Tan, J. C.5,6; Caselli, P.3; Jimenez-Serra, I7; Law, C. Y.5; Avison, A.8,9; Bigiel, F.1; Feng, S.10,11,12; Kong, S.13; Longmore, S. N.14; Moser, L.1; Parker, R. J.15; Sanchez-Monge, A.16; Wang, K.17
2021-05-01
Source PublicationMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
ISSN0035-8711
Volume503Issue:3Pages:4601-4626
AbstractInfrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are potential hosts of the elusive early phases of high mass star formation (HMSF). Here, we conduct an in-depth analysis of the fragmentation properties of a sample of 10 IRDCs, which have been highlighted as some of the best candidates to study HMSF within the Milky Way. To do so, we have obtained a set of large mosaics covering these IRDCs with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at Band 3 (or 3 mm). These observations have a high angular resolution (similar to 3 arcsec; similar to 0.05 pc), and high continuum and spectral line sensitivity (similar to 0.15 mJy beam(-1) and similar to 0.2 K per 0.1 km s(-1) channel at the N2H+ (1 - 0) transition). From the dust continuum emission, we identify 96 cores ranging from low to high mass (M = 3.4-50.9M(circle dot)) that are gravitationally bound (alpha(vir) = 0.3-1.3) and which would require magnetic field strengths of B = 0.3-1.0 mG to be in virial equilibrium. We combine these results with a homogenized catalogue of literature cores to recover the hierarchical structure within these clouds over four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.01-10 pc). Using supplementary observations at an even higher angular resolution, we find that the smallest fragments (<0.02 pc) within this hierarchy do not currently have the mass and/or the density required to form high-mass stars. None the less, the new ALMA observations presented in this paper have facilitated the identification of 19 (6 quiescent and 13 star-forming) cores that retain >16M(circle dot) without further fragmentation. These high-mass cores contain trans-sonic non-thermal motions, are kinematically sub-virial, and require moderate magnetic field strengths for support against collapse. The identification of these potential sites of HMSF represents a key step in allowing us to test the predictions from high-mass star and cluster formation theories.
Keywordstars: formation stars: massive ISM: clouds
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University
DOI10.1093/mnras/stab803
WOS KeywordINFRARED DARK CLOUD ; LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS ; STAR-FORMATION ; MAGNETIC-FIELDS ; PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES ; SIZE RELATION ; VELOCITY-COHERENT ; MOLECULAR CLOUD ; GALACTIC PLANE ; COLUMN DENSITY
Language英语
Funding ProjectEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[726384/Empire] ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER[ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R] ; State Research Agency (AEI)[PID2019-105552RB-C41] ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)[184018867] ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2017YFA0402702] ; National Key Research and Development Program of China[2019YFA0405100] ; National Science Foundation of China[11973013] ; National Science Foundation of China[11721303] ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University[7101502287]
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Max Planck Society ; Max Planck Society ; Spanish FEDER ; Spanish FEDER ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; State Research Agency (AEI) ; Royal Society ; Royal Society ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA) ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Key Research and Development Program of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; National Science Foundation of China ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University ; Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000649000600106
PublisherOXFORD UNIV PRESS
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/77635
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorBarnes, A. T.
Affiliation1.Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
2.Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
4.INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy
5.Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
6.Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, 530 McCormick Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA
7.Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Inst Nacl Tecn Aerosp, E-28850 Madrid, Spain
8.Univ Manchester, UK ALMA Reg Ctr Node, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Sch Phys & Astron, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England
9.Univ Manchester, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Sch Phys & Astron, Alan Turing Bldg, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England
10.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
11.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 1,Sect 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
12.Natl Inst Nat Sci, Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
13.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA
14.Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England
15.Univ Sheffield, Dept Phys & Astron, Hicks Bldg,Hounsfield Rd, Sheffield S3 7RH, S Yorkshire, England
16.Univ Cologne, Phys Inst 1, Zulpicher Str 77, D-50937 Cologne, Germany
17.Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Barnes, A. T.,Henshaw, J. D.,Fontani, F.,et al. ALMA-IRDC: dense gas mass distribution from cloud to core scales[J]. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,2021,503(3):4601-4626.
APA Barnes, A. T..,Henshaw, J. D..,Fontani, F..,Pineda, J. E..,Cosentino, G..,...&Wang, K..(2021).ALMA-IRDC: dense gas mass distribution from cloud to core scales.MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,503(3),4601-4626.
MLA Barnes, A. T.,et al."ALMA-IRDC: dense gas mass distribution from cloud to core scales".MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 503.3(2021):4601-4626.
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