NAOC Open IR
CON-quest: Searching for the most obscured galaxy nuclei
Falstad, N.1; Aalto, S.1; Konig, S.1; Onishi, K.1; Muller, S.1; Gorski, M.1; Sato, M.1; Stanley, F.1; Combes, F.2; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.3; Mangum, J. G.4; Evans, A. S.4,5; Barcos-Munoz, L.4; Privon, G. C.4; Linden, S. T.5; Diaz-Santos, T.6,23,24; Martin, S.7,8; Sakamoto, K.9; Harada, N.9,18; Fuller, G. A.10,25; Gallagher, J. S.11; van der Werf, P. P.12; Viti, S.12,13; Greve, T. R.13,14; Garcia-Burillo, S.15; Henkel, C.16,17; Imanishi, M.18; Izumi, T.18; Nishimura, Y.18,19; Ricci, C.6,20,21; Muehle, S.22
2021-05-21
Source PublicationASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
ISSN0004-6361
Volume649Pages:16
AbstractContext. Some luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) host extremely compact (r < 100 pc) and dusty nuclei. The high extinction associated with large column densities of gas and dust toward these objects render them hard to detect at many wavelengths. The intense infrared radiation arising from warm dust in these sources can provide a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity of the galaxy and is prone to excite vibrational levels of molecules such as HCN. This results in emission from the rotational transitions of vibrationally excited HCN (HCN-vib); the brightest emission is found in compact obscured nuclei (CONs; - HCN vib > 1 L fi pc 2 in the J = 3 2 transition). However, there have been no systematic searches for CONs, and it is unknown how common they are. Aims. We aim to establish how common CONs are in the local Universe (z < 0:08), and whether their prevalence depends on the luminosity or other properties of the host galaxy. Methods. We conducted an Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array survey of the rotational J = 3 2 transition of HCN-vib in a volumelimited sample of 46 far-infrared luminous galaxies. Results. Compact obscured nuclei are identified in 38+18 13 % of the ULIRGs, 21+12 6 % of the LIRGs, and 0+9 0 % of the lower luminosity galaxies. We find no dependence on the inclination of the host galaxy, but strong evidence of lower IRAS 25 1m to 60 -m flux density ratios ( f25 = f60) in CONs (with the exception of one galaxy, NGC 4418) compared to the rest of the sample. Furthermore, we find that CONs have stronger silicate features ( s9 :7 -m), but similar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon equivalent widths (EQW6 :2 -m) compared to other galaxies. Along with signatures of molecular inflows seen in the far-infrared in most CONs, submillimeter observations also reveal compact, often collimated, outflows. Conclusions. In the local Universe, CONs are primarily found in (U)LIRGs, in which they are remarkably common. As such systems are often highly disturbed, inclinations are di fficult to estimate, and high-resolution continuum observations of the individual nuclei are required to determine if the CON phenomenon is related to the inclinations of the nuclear disks. Further studies of the in- and outflow properties of CONs should also be conducted to investigate how these are connected to each other and to the CON phenomenon. The lower f25 = f60 ratios in CONs as well as the results for the mid-infrared diagnostics investigated (EQW6 :2 -m and s9 :7 -m) are consistent with the notion that large dust columns gradually shift the radiation from the hot nucleus to longer wavelengths, making the mid- and far-infrared "photospheres" significantly cooler than the interior regions. Finally, to assess the importance of CONs in the context of galaxy evolution, it is necessary to extend this study to higher redshifts where
Keywordgalaxies: evolution galaxies: nuclei galaxies: ISM ISM: molecules ISM: jets and outflows
Funding OrganizationNordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad
DOI10.1051/0004-6361/202039291
WOS KeywordVIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN ; SUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLES ; DENSE MOLECULAR GAS ; INFRARED LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS ; COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES ; STAR-FORMATION ; RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS ; GALACTIC NUCLEI ; HCO+ J=3-2 ; NGC 4418
Language英语
Funding ProjectNordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council[2017-00648] ; ERC Advanced Grant[789410] ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE[PGC2018-094671-B-I00] ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion[PID2019-106027GA-C44] ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER[AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R] ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa[SEV-2017-0709] ; Danish National Research Foundation[140] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R] ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad[PID2019-105552RB-C41]
Funding OrganizationNordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Nordic ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) node based at Onsala Space Observatory ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; ERC Advanced Grant ; ERC Advanced Grant ; Swedish Research Council ; Swedish Research Council ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion ; CASSACA ; CASSACA ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018 ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU - FEDER ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Danish National Research Foundation ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad ; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000657613400005
PublisherEDP SCIENCES S A
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/77107
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorFalstad, N.
Affiliation1.Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Onsala Space Observ, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden
2.Sorbonne Univ, PSL Univ, UPMC, Observ Paris,LERMA,Coll France,CNRS, Paris, France
3.Univ Alcala De Henares, Dept Fis & Matemat, Campus Univ, Madrid 28871, Spain
4.Natl Radio Astron Observ, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA
5.Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, 530 McCormick Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA
6.Univ Diego Portales, Nucleo Astron, Fac Ingn, Av Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago, Chile
7.European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107, Santiago 7630355, Chile
8.Joint ALMA Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107, Santiago 7630355, Chile
9.Acad Sinica, Inst Astron & Astrophys, 11F AS NTU Astron Math Bldg,1,Sec 4,Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
10.Univ Manchester, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys & Astron, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England
11.Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, 5534 Sterling,475 North Charter St, Madison, WI 53706 USA
12.Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
13.UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England
14.Tech Univ Denmark, Cosm Dawn Ctr Dawn, DTU Space, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
15.Observ Madrid, OAN IGN, Alfonso XII 3, Madrid 28014, Spain
16.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
17.King Abdulaziz Univ, Astron Dept, POB 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
18.Natl Inst Nat Sci NINS, Natl Astron Observ Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
19.Univ Tokyo, Inst Astron, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1810015, Japan
20.Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
21.George Mason Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, MS 3F3,4400 Univ Dr, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA
22.Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
23.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Chinese Acad Sci South Amer Ctr Astron CASSACA, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
24.Fdn Res & Technol Hellas FORTH, Inst Astrophys, Iraklion 70013, Greece
25.Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Falstad, N.,Aalto, S.,Konig, S.,et al. CON-quest: Searching for the most obscured galaxy nuclei[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2021,649:16.
APA Falstad, N..,Aalto, S..,Konig, S..,Onishi, K..,Muller, S..,...&Muehle, S..(2021).CON-quest: Searching for the most obscured galaxy nuclei.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,649,16.
MLA Falstad, N.,et al."CON-quest: Searching for the most obscured galaxy nuclei".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 649(2021):16.
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