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Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud
Hennemann, M.1; Motte, F.1; Bontemps, S.1,2; Schneider, N.1; Csengeri, T.1; Balog, Z.3; Di Francesco, J.4; Zavagno, A.5; Andre, Ph.1; Men'shchikov, A.1; Abergel, A.6; Ali, B.7; Baluteau, J. -P.5; Bernard, J. -Ph.8,9; Cox, P.10; Didelon, P.1; di Giorgio, A. -M.11; Griffin, M.12; Hargrave, P.12; Hill, T.1; Horeau, B.1; Huang, M.13; Kirk, J.12; Leeks, S.14; Li, J. Z.13; Marston, A.15; Martin, P.16,17; Molinari, S.11; Luong, Q. Nguyen1; Olofsson, G.18; Persi, P.19; Pezzuto, S.11; Russeil, D.5; Saraceno, P.11; Sauvage, M.1; Sibthorpe, B.20; Spinoglio, L.11; Testi, L.21; Ward-Thompson, D.12; White, G.14,22; Wilson, C.23; Woodcraft, A.20
AbstractThe Herschel OB young stellar objects survey (HOBYS) has observed the Rosette molecular cloud, providing an unprecedented view of its star formation activity. These new far-infrared data reveal a population of compact young stellar objects whose physical properties we aim to characterise. We compiled a sample of protostars and their spectral energy distributions that covers the near-infrared to submillimetre wavelength range. These were used to constrain key properties in the protostellar evolution, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass and to build an evolutionary diagram. Several clusters are distinguished including the cloud centre, the embedded clusters in the vicinity of luminous infrared sources, and the interaction region. The analysed protostellar population in Rosette ranges from 0.1 to about 15 M-circle dot with luminosities between 1 and 150 L-circle dot, which extends the evolutionary diagram from low-mass protostars into the high-mass regime. Some sources lack counterparts at near-to mid-infrared wavelengths, indicating extreme youth. The central cluster and the Phelps & Lada 7 cluster appear less evolved than the remainder of the analysed protostellar population. For the central cluster, we find indications that about 25% of the protostars classified as Class I from near-to mid-infrared data are actually candidate Class 0 objects. As a showcase for protostellar evolution, we analysed four protostars of low-to intermediate-mass in a single dense core, and they represent different evolutionary stages from Class 0 to Class I. Their mid-to far-infrared spectral slopes flatten towards the Class I stage, and the 160 to 70 mu m flux ratio is greatest for the presumed Class 0 source. This shows that the Herschel observations characterise the earliest stages of protostellar evolution in detail.
KeywordStars: Formation Stars: protoStars Ism: Individual Objects: Rosette
Indexed BySCI
WOS IDWOS:000281527200085
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Cited Times:29[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM, CEA IRFU, CNRS INSU,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France
2.Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS INSU, F-33271 Floirac, France
3.Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
4.Univ Victoria, Dept Phys & Astron, Natl Res Council Canada, Herzberg Inst Astrophys, Victoria, BC, Canada
5.Univ Aix Marseille 1, Lab Astrophys Marseille, CNRS INSU, F-13388 Marseille 13, France
6.Univ Paris 11, IAS, F-91435 Orsay, France
7.CALTECH, NHSC IPAC, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
8.Univ Toulouse, CESR, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France
9.Univ Toulouse, CNRS, UMR 5187, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France
10.IRAM, F-38406 St Martin Dheres, France
11.INAF IFSI, I-00133 Rome, Italy
12.Cardiff Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Cardiff, S Glam, Wales
13.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
14.Rutherford Appleton Lab, Space Sci & Technol Dept, Didcot OX11 0NL, Oxon, England
15.ESA, Herschel Sci Ctr, ESAC, Madrid 28691, Spain
16.Univ Toronto, CITA, Toronto, ON, Canada
17.Univ Toronto, Dep Astron & Astrophys, Toronto, ON, Canada
18.Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
19.INAF IASF, Sez Roma, I-00133 Rome, Italy
20.Royal Observ, UK Astron Technol Ctr, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland
21.ESO, D-85748 Garching, Germany
22.Open Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England
23.McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Hennemann, M.,Motte, F.,Bontemps, S.,et al. Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2010,518.
APA Hennemann, M..,Motte, F..,Bontemps, S..,Schneider, N..,Csengeri, T..,...&Woodcraft, A..(2010).Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,518.
MLA Hennemann, M.,et al."Herschel observations of embedded protostellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 518(2010).
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