The Evolving AGN Duty Cycle in Galaxies Since z?~?3 as Encoded in the X-Ray Luminosity Function
Delvecchio,I.1,2; Daddi,E.1; Aird,J.3; Mullaney,J. R.4; Bernhard,E.4; Grimmett,L. P.4; Carraro,R.5; Cimatti,A.6,7; Zamorani,G.8; Caplar,N.9; Vito,F.10,11; Elbaz,D.1; Rodighiero,G.12
Source PublicationThe Astrophysical Journal
AbstractAbstract We present a new modeling of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z?~?3, dissecting the contributions of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. For each galaxy population, we convolved the observed galaxy stellar mass (M?) function with a grid of M?-independent Eddington ratio (λEDD) distributions, normalized via empirical black hole accretion rate (BHAR) to star formation rate (SFR) relations. Our simple approach yields an excellent agreement with the observed XLF since z?~?3. We find that the redshift evolution of the observed XLF can only be reproduced through an intrinsic flattening of the λEDD distribution and with a positive shift of the break λ*, consistent with an antihierarchical behavior. The AGN accretion history is predominantly made by massive (1010??44.36?+?1.28?×?(1?+?z). We infer that the probability of finding highly accreting (λEDD?>?10%) AGNs significantly increases with redshift, from 0.4% (3.0%) at z?=?0.5%–6.5% (15.3%) at z?=?3 for MS (SB) galaxies, implying a longer AGN duty cycle in the early universe. Our results strongly favor a M?-dependent ratio between BHAR and SFR, as BHAR/SFR?∝? , supporting a nonlinear BH buildup relative to the host. Finally, this framework opens potential questions on super-Eddington BH accretion and different λEDD prescriptions for understanding the cosmic BH mass assembly.
KeywordAGN host galaxies Starburst galaxies Active galactic nuclei Active galaxies Galaxy evolution
WOS IDIOP:0004-637X-892-1-ab789c
PublisherThe American Astronomical Society
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.CEA, IRFU, DAp, AIM, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France;
2.INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121, Milano, Italy
3.Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RJ, UK
4.Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
5.Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Breta?a 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile
6.University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy (DIFA), Via Gobetti 93/2, I-40129, Bologna, Italy
7.INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze, Italy
8.INAF—Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio, via Gobetti 93/3, I-40129, Bologna, Italy
9.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
10.Instituto de Astrofisica and Centro de Astroingenieria, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile
11.Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012, People’s Republic of China
12.University of Padova, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova, Italy
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Delvecchio,I.,Daddi,E.,Aird,J.,等. The Evolving AGN Duty Cycle in Galaxies Since z?~?3 as Encoded in the X-Ray Luminosity Function[J]. The Astrophysical Journal,2020,892(1).
APA Delvecchio,I..,Daddi,E..,Aird,J..,Mullaney,J. R..,Bernhard,E..,...&Rodighiero,G..(2020).The Evolving AGN Duty Cycle in Galaxies Since z?~?3 as Encoded in the X-Ray Luminosity Function.The Astrophysical Journal,892(1).
MLA Delvecchio,I.,et al."The Evolving AGN Duty Cycle in Galaxies Since z?~?3 as Encoded in the X-Ray Luminosity Function".The Astrophysical Journal 892.1(2020).
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