ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): Detection of Extremely High-density Compact Structure of Prestellar Cores and Multiple Substructures Within
Sahu,Dipen1; Liu,Sheng-Yuan1; Liu,Tie2; Evans II,Neal J.3; Hirano,Naomi1; Tatematsu,Ken’ichi4,29; Lee,Chin-Fei1; Kim,Kee-Tae5,6; Dutta,Somnath1; Alina,Dana7; Bronfman,Leonardo8; Cunningham,Maria9; Eden,David J.10; Garay,Guido8; Goldsmith,Paul F.11; He,Jinhua8,12,13; Hsu,Shih-Ying1,14; Jhan,Kai-Syun1,14; Johnstone,Doug15,16; Juvela,Mika17; Kim,Gwanjeong4; Kuan,Yi-Jehng1,18; Kwon,Woojin19; Lee,Chang Won5,6; Lee,Jeong-Eun20; Li,Di21,22; Li,Pak Shing23; Li,Shanghuo5; Luo,Qiu-Yi2; Montillaud,Julien24; Moraghan,Anthony1; Pelkonen,Veli-Matti25; Qin,Sheng-Li26; Ristorcelli,Isabelle27; Sanhueza,Patricio28,29; Shang,Hsien1; Shen,Zhi-Qiang2; Soam,Archana30; Wu,Yuefang31; Zhang,Qizhou32; Zhou,Jianjun33
Source PublicationThe Astrophysical Journal Letters
AbstractAbstract Prestellar cores are self-gravitating dense and cold structures within molecular clouds where future stars are born. They are expected, at the stage of transitioning to the protostellar phase, to harbor centrally concentrated dense (sub)structures that will seed the formation of a new star or the binary/multiple stellar systems. Characterizing this critical stage of evolution is key to our understanding of star formation. In this work, we report the detection of high-density (sub)structures on the thousand-astronomical-unit (au) scale in a sample of dense prestellar cores. Through our recent ALMA observations toward the Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps, we have found five extremely dense prestellar cores, which have centrally concentrated regions of ~2000 au in size, and several 107 cm?3 in average density. Masses of these centrally dense regions are in the range of 0.30 to 6.89 M⊙. For the first time, our higher resolution observations (0.8″ ~ 320 au) further reveal that one of the cores shows clear signatures of fragmentation; such individual substructures/fragments have sizes of 800–1700 au, masses of 0.08 to 0.84 M⊙, densities of 2 ? 8 × 107 cm?3, and separations of ~1200 au. The substructures are massive enough (?0.1 M⊙) to form young stellar objects and are likely examples of the earliest stage of stellar embryos that can lead to widely (~1200 au) separated multiple systems.
KeywordMolecular clouds Collapsing clouds Star-forming regions Star formation Protostars
WOS IDIOP:2041-8205-907-1-abd3aa
PublisherThe American Astronomical Society
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorSahu,Dipen
Affiliation1.Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of AS/NTU Astronomy-Mathematics Building, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan R.O.C.;,
2.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, People’s Republic of China;
3.Department of Astronomy The University of Texas at Austin 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712-1205, USA
4.Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305, Japan
5.Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea
6.University of Science and Technology, Korea (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
7.Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Humanities, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
8.Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
9.School of Physics, University of New South Wales(UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
10.Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, iC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK
11.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
12.Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216, People’s Republic of China
13.Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of China
14.National Taiwan University (NTU), Taiwan R.O.C.
15.NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7, Canada
16.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada
17.Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
18.Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
19.Department of Earth Science Education, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
20.School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-Daero, Giheung-gu Yongin-shi, Gyunggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea
21.National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People’s Republic of China
22.NAOC-UKZN Computational Astrophysics Centre, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
23.Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
24.Institut UTINAM—UMR 6213—CNRS–Univ. Bourgogne Franche Comté, OSU THETA, 41bis avenue de l’Observatoire, F-25000 Besan?on, France
25.Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
26.Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091, People’s Republic of China
27.Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4, France
28.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
29.Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
30.SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, USA
31.Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing, People’s Republic of China
32.Center for Astrophysics ∣ Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
33.Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS: Urumqi, Xinjiang, CN, People’s Republic of China
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Sahu,Dipen,Liu,Sheng-Yuan,Liu,Tie,et al. ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): Detection of Extremely High-density Compact Structure of Prestellar Cores and Multiple Substructures Within[J]. The Astrophysical Journal Letters,2021,907(1).
APA Sahu,Dipen.,Liu,Sheng-Yuan.,Liu,Tie.,Evans II,Neal J..,Hirano,Naomi.,...&Zhou,Jianjun.(2021).ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): Detection of Extremely High-density Compact Structure of Prestellar Cores and Multiple Substructures Within.The Astrophysical Journal Letters,907(1).
MLA Sahu,Dipen,et al."ALMA Survey of Orion Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (ALMASOP): Detection of Extremely High-density Compact Structure of Prestellar Cores and Multiple Substructures Within".The Astrophysical Journal Letters 907.1(2021).
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