A Study of Gas Entropy Profiles of 47 Galaxy Clusters and Groups out to the Virial Radius
Zhu,Zhenghao1; Xu,Haiguang1,2; Hu,Dan1; Shan,Chenxi1; Zhu,Yongkai1; Fan,Shida1; Zhao,Yuanyuan1; Gu,Liyi3,4; Wu,Xiang-Ping5
Source PublicationThe Astrophysical Journal
AbstractAbstract Some observations, such as those presented in Walker et al., show that the observed entropy profiles of the intracluster medium (ICM) deviate from the power-law prediction of adiabatic simulations. This implies that nongravitational processes, which are absent in the simulations, may be important in the evolution of the ICM, and by quantifying the deviation, we may be able to estimate the feedback energy in the ICM and use it as a probe of the nongravitational processes. To address this issue, we calculate the ICM entropy profiles in a sample of 47 galaxy clusters and groups, which have been observed out to at least ~r500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and/or Suzaku, by constructing a physical model to incorporate the effects of both gravity and nongravitational processes to fit the observed gas temperature and surface brightness profiles via Bayesian statistics. After carefully evaluating the effects of systematic errors, we find that the gas entropy profiles derived with best-fit results of our model are consistent with the simulation-predicted power-law profile near the virial radius, while the flattened profiles reported previously can be explained by introducing the gas clumping effect, the existence of which is confirmed in 19 luminous targets in our sample. We calculate the total feedback energy per particle and find that it decreases from ~10 keV at the center to about zero at ~0.35r200 and is consistent with zero outside ~0.35r200, implying an upper limit of the feedback efficiency of ~0.02 for the supermassive black holes hosted in the brightest cluster galaxies.
KeywordGalaxy clusters Intracluster medium X-ray sources
WOS IDIOP:0004-637X-908-1-abd327
PublisherThe American Astronomical Society
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorXu,Haiguang
Affiliation1.School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
2.IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
3.RIKEN High Energy Astrophysics Laboratory, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
4.SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
5.National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012, People’s Republic of China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zhu,Zhenghao,Xu,Haiguang,Hu,Dan,et al. A Study of Gas Entropy Profiles of 47 Galaxy Clusters and Groups out to the Virial Radius[J]. The Astrophysical Journal,2021,908(1).
APA Zhu,Zhenghao.,Xu,Haiguang.,Hu,Dan.,Shan,Chenxi.,Zhu,Yongkai.,...&Wu,Xiang-Ping.(2021).A Study of Gas Entropy Profiles of 47 Galaxy Clusters and Groups out to the Virial Radius.The Astrophysical Journal,908(1).
MLA Zhu,Zhenghao,et al."A Study of Gas Entropy Profiles of 47 Galaxy Clusters and Groups out to the Virial Radius".The Astrophysical Journal 908.1(2021).
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