NAOC Open IR
The Fornax 3D project: Non-linear colour-metallicity relation of globular clusters
Fahrion, K.1; Lyubenova, M.1; Hilker, M.1; van de Ven, G.2; Falcon-Barroso, J.3,4; Leaman, R.5; Martin-Navarro, I3,4,5,6; Bittner, A.1; Coccato, L.1; Corsini, E. M.7,8; Gadotti, D. A.1; Iodice, E.1,9; McDermid, R. M.10; Pinna, F.5; Sarzi, M.11,12; Viaene, S.13; de Zeeuw, P. T.14,15; Zhu, L.16
2020-05-07
Source PublicationASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
ISSN0004-6361
Volume637Pages:14
AbstractGlobular cluster (GC) systems of massive galaxies often show a bimodal colour distribution. This has been interpreted as a metallicity bimodality, created by a two-stage galaxy formation where the red, metal-rich GCs were formed in the parent halo and the blue metal-poor GCs were accreted. This interpretation, however, crucially depends on the assumption that GCs are exclusively old stellar systems with a linear colour-metallicity relation (CZR). The shape of the CZR and range of GC ages are currently under debate because their study requires high quality spectra to derive reliable stellar population properties. We determined metallicities with full spectral fitting from a sample of 187 GCs with a high spectral signal-to-noise ratio in 23 galaxies of the Fornax cluster that were observed as part of the Fornax 3D project. The derived CZR from this sample is non-linear and can be described by a piecewise linear function with a break point at (g-z) similar to 1.1 mag. The less massive galaxies in our sample (M-*< 10(10) M-) appear to have slightly younger GCs, but the shape of the CZR is insensitive to the GC ages. Although the least massive galaxies lack red, metal-rich GCs, a non-linear CZR is found irrespective of the galaxy mass, even in the most massive galaxies (M-*>= 10(11) M-circle dot). Our CZR predicts narrow unimodal GC metallicity distributions for low mass and broad unimodal distributions for very massive galaxies, dominated by a metal-poor and metal-rich peak, respectively, and bimodal distributions for galaxies with intermediate masses (10(10) <= M-*< 10(11) M-) as a consequence of the relative fraction of red and blue GCs. The diverse metallicity distributions challenge the simple differentiation of GC populations solely based on their colour.
Keywordgalaxies: kinematics and dynamics galaxies: star clusters: general galaxies: clusters: individual: Fornax galaxies: evolution
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University
DOI10.1051/0004-6361/202037686
WOS KeywordEARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ; STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS ; DWARF GALAXIES ; NGC 5128 ; SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITIES ; GEMINI/GMOS SPECTRA ; EVOLUTION DATABASE ; VLT SPECTROSCOPY ; ALPHA/FE RATIOS ; SCALED-SOLAR
Language英语
Funding ProjectEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant[724857] ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship[FT150100333] ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU)[AYA2016-77237-C3-1P] ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO)[AYA2016-77237-C3-1-P] ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship[702607] ; MIUR grant[PRIN 2017 20173ML3WW_001] ; Padua University[DOR1715817/17] ; Padua University[DOR1885254/18] ; Padua University[DOR1935272/19]
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; RAVET project by Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) ; IAC project TRACES ; IAC project TRACES ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Consejeria de Economia, Industria, Comercio y Conocimiento of the Canary Islands Autonomous Community ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual SPanD Fellowship ; MIUR grant ; MIUR grant ; Padua University ; Padua University
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000536754400003
PublisherEDP SCIENCES S A
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/54784
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorFahrion, K.
Affiliation1.European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
2.Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria
3.Inst Astrofis Canarias, Calle Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain
4.Univ La Laguna, Dept Astroffs, Calle Astrofis Francisco Sanchez S-N, Tenerife 38206, Spain
5.Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
6.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, 1156 High St, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
7.Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy
8.INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy
9.INAF Astron Observ Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy
10.Macquarie Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, N Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia
11.Armagh Observ & Planetarium, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland
12.Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England
13.Univ Ghent, Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
14.Leiden Univ, Sterrewacht Leiden, Postbus 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
15.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany
16.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Fahrion, K.,Lyubenova, M.,Hilker, M.,et al. The Fornax 3D project: Non-linear colour-metallicity relation of globular clusters[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2020,637:14.
APA Fahrion, K..,Lyubenova, M..,Hilker, M..,van de Ven, G..,Falcon-Barroso, J..,...&Zhu, L..(2020).The Fornax 3D project: Non-linear colour-metallicity relation of globular clusters.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,637,14.
MLA Fahrion, K.,et al."The Fornax 3D project: Non-linear colour-metallicity relation of globular clusters".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 637(2020):14.
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