NAOC Open IR
Evolved massive stars at low-metallicity I. A source catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud
Yang, Ming1; Bonanos, Alceste Z.1; Jiang, Bi-Wei2; Gao, Jian2; Gavras, Panagiotis3; Maravelias, Grigoris1; Ren, Yi2; Wang, Shu4; Xue, Meng-Yao5; Tramper, Frank1; Spetsieri, Zoi T.1,6; Pouliasis, Ektoras1,6
2019-09-10
Source PublicationASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
ISSN1432-0746
Volume629Pages:17
AbstractWe present a clean, magnitude-limited (IRAC1 or WISE1 <= 15.0 mag) multiwavelength source catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with 45 466 targets in total, with the purpose of building an anchor for future studies, especially for the massive star populations at low-metallicity. The catalog contains data in 50 different bands including 21 optical and 29 infrared bands, retrieved from SEIP, VMC, IRSF, AKARI, HERITAGE, Gaia, SkyMapper, NSC, Massey (2002, ApJS, 141, 81), and GALEX, ranging from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared. Additionally, radial velocities and spectral classifications were collected from the literature, and infrared and optical variability statistics were retrieved from WISE, SAGE-Var, VMC, IRSF, Gaia, NSC, and OGLE. The catalog was essentially built upon a 1 '' crossmatching and a 3 '' deblending between the Spitzer Enhanced Imaging Products (SEIP) source list and Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) photometric data. Further constraints on the proper motions and parallaxes from Gaia DR2 allowed us to remove the foreground contamination. We estimate that about 99.5% of the targets in our catalog are most likely genuine members of the SMC. Using the evolutionary tracks and synthetic photometry from MESA Isochrones & Stellar Tracks and the theoretical J - K-S color cuts, we identified 1405 red supergiant (RSG), 217 yellow supergiant, and 1369 blue supergiant candidates in the SMC in five different color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), where attention should also be paid to the incompleteness of our sample. We ranked the candidates based on the intersection of different CMDs. A comparison between the models and observational data shows that the lower limit of initial mass for the RSG population may be as low as 7 or even 6 M-circle dot and that the RSG is well separated from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population even at faint magnitude, making RSGs a unique population connecting the evolved massive and intermediate stars, since stars with initial mass around 6 to 8 M-circle dot are thought to go through a second dredge-up to become AGB stars. We encourage the interested reader to further exploit the potential of our catalog.
Keywordinfrared: stars Magellanic Clouds stars: late-type stars: massive stars: mass-loss stars: variables: general
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO
DOI10.1051/0004-6361/201935916
WOS KeywordGRAVITATIONAL LENSING EXPERIMENT ; RED SUPERGIANTS ; AGB STARS ; OGLE COLLECTION ; INFRARED PHOTOMETRY ; 1ST STARS ; EVOLUTION ; GALAXY ; TELESCOPE ; CEPHEIDS
Language英语
Funding ProjectEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme[772086] ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA)[4000112940] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[11533002] ; National Natural Science Foundation of China[U1631104] ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council[LE130100104] ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO[179.B-2003]
Funding OrganizationEuropean Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; Hubble Catalog of Variables project - European Space Agency (ESA) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; ARC LIEF grant from the Australian Research Council ; Australian National University ; Australian National University ; Swinburne University of Technology ; Swinburne University of Technology ; University of Queensland ; University of Queensland ; University of Western Australia ; University of Western Australia ; University of Melbourne ; University of Melbourne ; Curtin University of Technology ; Curtin University of Technology ; Monash University ; Monash University ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Australian Astronomical Observatory ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Astronomy Australia Limited (AAL) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; Australian Government through the Commonwealth's Education Investment Fund (EIF) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources (NeCTAR) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; Australian National Data Service Projects (ANDS) ; ESO ; ESO
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000485214600008
PublisherEDP SCIENCES S A
Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/27720
Collection中国科学院国家天文台
Corresponding AuthorYang, Ming
Affiliation1.Natl Observ Athens, IAASARS, Penteli 15236, Greece
2.Beijing Normal Univ, Dept Astron, Beijing 100875, Peoples R China
3.ESAC, ESA, Rhea Grp, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Opt Astron, Natl Astron Observ, Datun Rd 20A, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China
5.Curtin Univ, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
6.Univ Athens, Fac Phys, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Yang, Ming,Bonanos, Alceste Z.,Jiang, Bi-Wei,et al. Evolved massive stars at low-metallicity I. A source catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2019,629:17.
APA Yang, Ming.,Bonanos, Alceste Z..,Jiang, Bi-Wei.,Gao, Jian.,Gavras, Panagiotis.,...&Pouliasis, Ektoras.(2019).Evolved massive stars at low-metallicity I. A source catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,629,17.
MLA Yang, Ming,et al."Evolved massive stars at low-metallicity I. A source catalog for the Small Magellanic Cloud".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 629(2019):17.
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