NAOC Open IR  > 星系宇宙学研究部
X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei at high accretion luminosities
Georgakakis, A.1,2; Salvato, M.1; Liu, Z.3,4; Buchner, J.1,5,6; Brandt, W. N.7,8,9; Ananna, T. Tasnim10; Schulze, A.11,12; Shen, Yue13,14; LaMassa, S.14; Nandra, K.1; Merloni, A.1; McGreer, I. D.16
2017-08-01
Source PublicationMONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY
Volume469Issue:3Pages:3232-3251
AbstractThe wide-area XMM-XXL X-ray survey is used to explore the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high accretion luminosities, L-X(2-10 keV) greater than or similar to 10(44) erg s(-1), and out to redshift z approximate to 1.5. The sample covers an area of about 14 deg(2) and provides constraints on the space density of powerful AGNs over a wide range of neutral hydrogen column densities extending beyond the Compton-thick limit, N-H approximate to 10(24) cm(-2). The fraction of obscured Compton-thin (N-H = 10(22) - 10(24) cm(-2)) AGNs is estimated to be approximate to 0.35 for luminosities L-X(2-10 keV) > 10(44) erg s(-1), independent of redshift. For less luminous sources, the fraction of obscured Compton-thin AGNs increases from 0.45 +/- 0.10 at z = 0.25 to 0.75 +/- 0.05 at z = 1.25. Studies that select AGNs in the infrared via template fits to the observed spectral energy distribution of extragalactic sources estimate space densities at high accretion luminosities consistent with the XMM-XXL constraints. There is no evidence for a large population of AGNs (e.g. heavily obscured) identified in the infrared and missed at X-ray wavelengths. We further explore the mid-infrared colours of XMM-XXL AGNs as a function of accretion luminosity, column density and redshift. The fraction of XMM-XXL sources that lie within the mid-infrared colour wedges defined in the literature to select AGNs is primarily a function of redshift. This fraction increases from about 20-30 per cent at z = 0.25 to about 50-70 per cent at z = 1.5.
SubtypeArticle
KeywordGalaxies: Active Quasars: General Quasars: Supermassive Black Holes Galaxies: Seyfert X-rays: Diffuse Background
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences
Funding OrganizationTHALES - European Union(383549) ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; University of Arizona ; University of Arizona ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Carnegie Mellon University ; Carnegie Mellon University ; University of Florida ; University of Florida ; French Participation Group ; French Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; Harvard University ; Harvard University ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Johns Hopkins University ; Johns Hopkins University ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; New Mexico State University ; New Mexico State University ; New York University ; New York University ; Ohio State University ; Ohio State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; University of Portsmouth ; University of Portsmouth ; Princeton University ; Princeton University ; Spanish Participation Group ; Spanish Participation Group ; University of Tokyo ; University of Tokyo ; University of Utah ; University of Utah ; Vanderbilt University ; Vanderbilt University ; University of Virginia ; University of Virginia ; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Yale University ; Yale University ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; University of Arizona ; University of Arizona ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Carnegie Mellon University ; Carnegie Mellon University ; University of Florida ; University of Florida ; French Participation Group ; French Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; Harvard University ; Harvard University ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Johns Hopkins University ; Johns Hopkins University ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; New Mexico State University ; New Mexico State University ; New York University ; New York University ; Ohio State University ; Ohio State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; University of Portsmouth ; University of Portsmouth ; Princeton University ; Princeton University ; Spanish Participation Group ; Spanish Participation Group ; University of Tokyo ; University of Tokyo ; University of Utah ; University of Utah ; Vanderbilt University ; Vanderbilt University ; University of Virginia ; University of Virginia ; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Yale University ; Yale University
DOI10.1093/mnras/stx953
WOS KeywordABSORPTION-LINE QUASARS ; DIGITAL SKY SURVEY ; SUPERMASSIVE BLACK-HOLES ; STAR-FORMING GALAXIES ; DEEP FIELD-SOUTH ; POINT-SOURCE CATALOG ; NUSTAR EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY ; TELESCOPE LENSING SURVEY ; PHOTON IMAGING CAMERA ; COMPTON-THICK AGN
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Funding OrganizationTHALES - European Union(383549) ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; University of Arizona ; University of Arizona ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Carnegie Mellon University ; Carnegie Mellon University ; University of Florida ; University of Florida ; French Participation Group ; French Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; Harvard University ; Harvard University ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Johns Hopkins University ; Johns Hopkins University ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; New Mexico State University ; New Mexico State University ; New York University ; New York University ; Ohio State University ; Ohio State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; University of Portsmouth ; University of Portsmouth ; Princeton University ; Princeton University ; Spanish Participation Group ; Spanish Participation Group ; University of Tokyo ; University of Tokyo ; University of Utah ; University of Utah ; Vanderbilt University ; Vanderbilt University ; University of Virginia ; University of Virginia ; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Yale University ; Yale University ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; THALES - European Union(383549) ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; Greek Government of the programme 'Education and lifelong learning' ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; FONDECYT Postdoctorados(3160439) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative(IC120009) ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Millennium Institute of Astro-physics MAS ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; National Science Foundation ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; University of Arizona ; University of Arizona ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brazilian Participation Group ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Brookhaven National Laboratory ; Carnegie Mellon University ; Carnegie Mellon University ; University of Florida ; University of Florida ; French Participation Group ; French Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; German Participation Group ; Harvard University ; Harvard University ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group ; Johns Hopkins University ; Johns Hopkins University ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics ; New Mexico State University ; New Mexico State University ; New York University ; New York University ; Ohio State University ; Ohio State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; Pennsylvania State University ; University of Portsmouth ; University of Portsmouth ; Princeton University ; Princeton University ; Spanish Participation Group ; Spanish Participation Group ; University of Tokyo ; University of Tokyo ; University of Utah ; University of Utah ; Vanderbilt University ; Vanderbilt University ; University of Virginia ; University of Virginia ; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Yale University ; Yale University
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000406836200050
Citation statistics
Cited Times:14[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.bao.ac.cn/handle/114a11/20060
Collection星系宇宙学研究部
Affiliation1.Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85748 Garching, Germany
2.Natl Observ Athens, Athens 11532, Greece
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China
4.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
5.Millenium Inst Astrophys, Vicuna MacKenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile
6.Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Inst Astrofis, Casilla 306, Santiago 22, Chile
7.Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
8.Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
9.Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
10.Yale Univ, Dept Phys, POB 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 USA
11.Univ Tokyo, Kavli IPMU WPI, UTIAS, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan
12.Natl Astron Observ Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan
13.Univ Illinois, Dept Astron, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
14.Univ Illinois, Natl Ctr Supercomp Applicat, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
15.NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA
16.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Georgakakis, A.,Salvato, M.,Liu, Z.,et al. X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei at high accretion luminosities[J]. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,2017,469(3):3232-3251.
APA Georgakakis, A..,Salvato, M..,Liu, Z..,Buchner, J..,Brandt, W. N..,...&McGreer, I. D..(2017).X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei at high accretion luminosities.MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY,469(3),3232-3251.
MLA Georgakakis, A.,et al."X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei at high accretion luminosities".MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 469.3(2017):3232-3251.
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